The Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory is made up of 16 communities inhabited by some 15,000 Jamésiens and 15,000 Crees. The region's distinctive social, cultural and economic fabric is the result of the coexistence of two cultures and the intermingling of their lifestyles and traditions.

The Jamesién population is mainly concentrated in the localities of Valcanton, Villebois and Radisson, which are located throughout the territory, and in the four enclosed towns of Chapais, Chibougamau, Matagami and Lebel-sur-Quévillon.

From north to south, the region also encompasses nine Cree communities. Five of these are located along the James Bay coast at the mouths of the main waterways and four (Nemaska, Mistissini, Oujé-Bougoumou and Waswanipi) are located inland.